首页 > 核心刊物 > 遗传 2017.11 Vol 39, No.11 > 中国肉牛分子与基因修饰育种研究进展

中国肉牛分子与基因修饰育种研究进展

佟彬,张立,李光鹏

内蒙古大学,省部共建草原家畜生殖调控与繁育国家重点实验室,呼和浩特 010071

 
Key Words:  肉牛, 分子育种, 基因组修饰育种
 

Abstract

随着世界肉牛产业科技的快速发展,我国肉牛产业的整体水平得到明显提高并取得丰硕成果。肉牛育种技术实现了由常规杂交育种向分子标记辅助育种、全基因组选择育种和基因组修饰育种的技术跨越,揭示出大量与生长发育、肉质品质、繁殖与疾病等相关的候选基因与分子标记,并逐步应用于肉牛育种实践。与生长发育性状相关的基因或分子标记主要集中在生长激素基因、生肌调节因子家族、肌肉生长抑制因子和胰岛素样生长因子等;参与肉质形成的基因主要集中在脂肪酸运输与沉积相关信号通路、钙蛋白酶信号通路、生肌调节因子家族与肌肉生长抑制因子等;繁殖性状相关基因或分子标记主要集中在GnRH-FSHR-LH、生长分化因子9、催乳素受体和FoxO1等;抗病相关基因主要有MHC基因家族、TOLL样受体4基因等。目前,利用精准基因编辑技术已培育出促生长发育与提高肉品质的肉牛育种新材料。本文总结了近年来我国在肉牛分子与基因组修饰育种领域取得的研究进展,以期为我国肉牛遗传育种技术研究提供参考和借鉴。


 

Abstract

The studies of beef cattle breeding in China have been greatly improved with the rapid development of the international beef cattle industrialization. The beef cattle breeding technologies have rapidly transformed from traditional breeding to molecular marker-assisted breeding, genomic selection and genetic modification breeding. Hundreds of candidate genes and molecular markers associated with growth, meat quality, reproduction performance and diseases resistance have been identified, and some of them have already been used in cattle breeding. Genes and molecular markers associated with growth and development are focused on the growth hormone, muscle regulatory factors, myostatin and insulin-like growth factors. Meat quality is mediated by fatty acid transport and deposition related signals, calpains and calpain system, muscle regulatory factors and muscle growth regulation pathways. Reproduction performance is regulated by GnRH-FSH-LH, growth differentiation factor 9, prolactin receptor and forkhead box protein O1. Disease resistance is modulated by the major histocompatibility complex gene family, toll-like receptors, mannose-binding lectin and interferon gene signals. In this review, we summarize the most recent progress in beef cattle breeding in marker-assisted selection, genome-wide selection and genetic modification breeding, aiming to provide a reference for further genetic breeding research of beef cattle in China.

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主办单位:

编辑单位:《遗传》 编辑部
主 编: 张永清
主 任: 张颖
编委阵容 :审稿专家
国内刊号:CN11-1913/R
国际刊号:ISSN 0253-9772
邮发代号: 2-810